Święcki Paweł
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45(2009)2 - Consciousness and the Subject


Paweł Święcki

Ontic foundations of intentionality of cognition and volition. Aquinas' approach

  • language: Polish


Summary

According to St. Thomas Aquinas, there are two types of intentional mental acts: cognitive and volitional. The former are described as movement (motus) of being towards soul which is to produce an image of this being, and the latter ? as movement of soul towards the being which is to reach being itself. What makes cognitive and volitional acts possible is that soul (subject) has intellect and will, and being (object) is transcendentally true and good. This paper shows that the soul and the being make together a basic ontic ?set?, which allows any actual intentional relations to occur. It is argued that both in cognition and in volition there is some sort of actualization of potentiality not only on the subjective side, but also on the objective one. Revised definitions of will, intellect, good and truth are suggested.

 

 
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46(2010)2 - Articles

Paweł M. Święcki

Appetite and intellect according to St. Thomas Aquinas

  • language: Polish


Summary

The subject of the paper is appetite and its role in human intellectual cognition. The analysis is based on St. Thomas Aquinas’ works, especially on his "Summa Theologiae" and "Quaestiones disputatae de veritate". Only intellect and will, powers of the rational part of soul, are considered. According to Aquinas, the presence of appetite on this level is not limited to free acts of will. Appetite can be found in the very structure of these powers – in both intellect and will there is a natural appetite, which inclines them to acting. These powers naturally desire: to cognize the truth, and the object of cognition as such. Consequently, there are three types of appetite that influence the acts of intellect: free acts of will, natural appetite of will, and natural appetite of intellect. Their essence, mutual relations, and their influence on intellect are discussed. It is shown that according to Aquinas the natural appetite of intellect and will enables any cognitive activity.