45(2009)2 
Dissertations

Kordula Świętorzecka
A classical theory of principles of being. Elements
Summary
The principles of being and procedures of defining them play a key part in classical metaphysics. However, they suffer from a fundamental difficulty: they have no precise methodological characteristics. A philosopher who uses in their considerations a net of classical metaphysical concepts is often forced by this to follow their own (or traditional) intuitions. Such methods are of course fallible, and moreover, they may be the cause of calling into question the value of such considerations. The paper is an attempt at changing this situation. Some proposals are suggested, of formalized extentional definitions of the principle of being and a division of being into principles (and also two types of the latter notion: a division of universals and a division of individuals into principles). The formulated definitions are constructive but they respect the traditional characteristics of described concepts.

47(2011)4 
Science versus Utopia. Limits of Scientific Cognition

Johannes Czermak Kordula Świętorzecka
Discreteness of time and change
Summary
The standard solution of Zenon’s paradoxes – especially that of Achilles and Tortoise – rests on some mathematical assumptions about real numbers. It is assumed that time is at least dense. However there is another solution that there may be considered “atoms” of time. In this case time would be discrete. This standpoint seems to be a natural, if somebody accepts that time is characterized by sequences of events. In that case the flow of time may be defined by changes. There is already a long philosophical discussion going back to the ancient times about the status of time and its priority to change. In the paper a modern tool for a description of this concept is presented – sentential logic of change LC does not entangle Achilles and Tortoise in Zenon’s paradox.

49(2013)3 
Papers

Kordula Świętorzecka
Towards leibnizian possibility. Formal frame of modal theory of individual concepts
Summary
In the presented analyses we propose a formal complement to a certain version of the semantics of possible worlds inspired by Leibniz’s ideas and provide an adequate logic of it. As the starting point we take the approach of Benson Mates (Leibniz on possible worlds). Mates refers to Leibniz’ philosophy, but also uses tools of contemporary semantics of possible worlds and elaborates on an original conception of predication due to which possible worlds can be identified with collections of certain concepts, and not individuals. We complete a fragmentary description given by Mates in order to analyze if his conception allows for the establishment of this specific idea of a possible world. Our first step is to define a notion of the individual concept and describe possible world semantics in which possible worlds consist of individual concepts of compossible individuals (sworlds). Our second step is to choose some version of modal free logic with the identity (S5MFLID), which is complete in our reformulation of Mates’ semantics. The connections between standard interpretation of S5MFLID and semantics inspired by Mates show that our logic does not distinguish sworlds from iworlds – counterparts of sworlds that are collections of individuals.

48(2012)1 
Reports and Reviews

Kordula Świętorzecka
Kazimierz Pawłowski, Zarys logiki. Skrypt dla studentów kierunków humanistycznych, Wydawnictwo UKSW, Warszawa 2012, ss. 199


