Wróblewski Zbigniew
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45(2009)1 - VIII Polish Philosophical Congress - Section of the Philosophy of Nature

Zbigniew Wróblewski

Nature – natural ends – values and norms. The analysis of the teleological argument in the formulation of practical philosophy of nature

  • language: Polish


In the article an analysis of the teleological argument (TA) found in the field of practical philosophy of nature and ecological ethics (Hans Jonas, Robert Spaemann, Reinchard Löw) has been presented. The TA is formulated on the basis of teleological interpretation of nature in the following way: if in nature exist ends, which men reconstructs as a claim of some good in itself, than that teleological structure of being obligates man to unconditional affirmation of everything what is alive (since in that natural beings purposefulness manifests itself in the most clear way).
In TA following elements has been distinguished and analyzed:
(i) the natural being possesses ends; the possession of end constitutes substantial being; man is a model of teleological being
(ii) in the possession of end there is a moment of valuation
(iii) in the actions one should have regard for internal value of being itself; particularly for the value of man, who is the end in itself
(iv) natural being (except man) are vested with internal values with regard for their teleological structure;
(v) in the moral action one should respect the ends of natural beings.
In the article the discussions with main objections to TA has been taken into consideration: (i) the anachronistic conception of nature, (ii) the rejection of the enlightenment idea of the autonomy and freedom of man, (iii) the naturalistic fallacy and normative naturalism. Key words: nature, natural ends, teleology, naturalism, internal value, subjectivity, responsibility, goodwill.